Why have medical and education costs risen so much faster than everything else?

Because the government distorts the market.

The Central State directly spends over $1 trillion a year on Medicare and Medicaid, and controls private spending with rules and regulations.

As for college costs: could their incredible expansion have anything to do with the Central State backing $1 trillion in student loans?

Not to mention that student loans cannot be discharged via bankruptcy, a big incentive to lenders. “Safer than houses,” so to speak.

I include one chart, but read the whole thing at the link:
The Source of High Inflation: Government Spending

In the case of energy, the cause is the decline in value of the world’s reserve currency – a result of printing too much of it.